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The bacterial flagellum is a long, hairlike, helically shaped structure that acts as an organelle of locomotion in certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Bacterial Flagella protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and are made up of single kind of protein subunit called flagellin. A Flagellum consists of three parts, Filament, hook, and basal [...]

By | 2018-03-19T11:25:54+00:00 March 19th, 2018|Fermentation, Food Microbiology|0 Comments

Characterization of Bacteria

Bacteria are the complex group of living things. Bacteria consist of only one cell. There are various species of bacteria, having one of the following shapes: Rod Coccus Spiral Some bacteria can live in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold below the freezing point. Bacteria may be helical or spiral in shape. [...]

By | 2018-03-19T11:31:39+00:00 March 19th, 2018|Food Microbiology|Comments Off on Characterization of Bacteria

Types of fermentation

Some of the most important types of fermentation are as follows: 1. Solid State Fermentation 2. Submerged Fermentation 3. Anaerobic Fermentation 4. Aerobic Fermentation 5. Immobilized Cell Bioreactors 6. Immobilized Enzyme Bioreactors Solid State Fermentation In solid state fermentations, microbial growth and product formation occur at the surface of solid substrates. Examples of such [...]

By | 2018-03-19T04:06:47+00:00 March 19th, 2018|Fermentation|Comments Off on Types of fermentation

Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis Agarose gel electrophoresis is the common way of separating and analyzing DNA biomolecules such as DNA and RNA. It is an analytical method for determining the size of DNA molecules in the range of 500 to 30,000 base pairs. DNA bands visualization can be done by the addition of Ethidium bromide in [...]

By | 2018-03-19T03:46:52+00:00 March 19th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

Citric acid cycle

Hans Krebs discovered citric acid cycle in 1937 and he got noble prize for it in 1953. This cycle is also named as Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid cycle. This cycle occurs inside the matrix of mitochondria. This pathway is used for both catabolic reactions to generate energy as well as for anabolic reactions to [...]

By | 2018-03-18T10:00:35+00:00 March 18th, 2018|Fermentation, Food Microbiology|0 Comments


It is the technique in which the microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes are used to transform hazardous contaminants into harmless products. While using chemicals for their own metabolism these microorganisms destroy organic contaminants. For e.g. Desulphovibrio desulfuricans are involved in the breakdown of mercury to methylmercury and Pseudomonas species are involved in converting [...]

By | 2018-03-18T09:20:27+00:00 March 18th, 2018|Food Microbiology, Plant Tissue Culture|0 Comments

Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning of desired gene in bacterial and eukaryotic systems and expression of recombinant proteins using different vectors: Vectors Vectors can be described as an autonomously replicating DNA sequence that can be used to carry foreign DNA fragments. Commonly used vectors are bacteriophages and plasmids. Insertion λ vectors are used for constructing cDNA libraries. [...]

By | 2018-03-16T16:59:11+00:00 March 16th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Molecular cloning

Isolation and purification of RNA and DNA

Isolation and purification of nucleic acids are very important for any molecular biology experiment. It is the starting material for all types of molecular biology experiments like restriction digestion, cloning, PCR, DNA-libraries and sequencing. By manipulating this extracted DNA or RNA, a new DNA with different characteristics can be obtained. Genetic engineering process relies [...]

By | 2018-03-15T11:18:31+00:00 March 15th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Isolation and purification of RNA and DNA

Scope of Training in Fermentation Technology

Fermentation is the use of living organisms (mainly microorganisms), typically on a large scale, to produce commercial products or to carry out important chemical transformations. Industrial fermentation is an interdisciplinary science that applies principles associated with biology and engineering. The biological aspect focuses on microbiology and biochemistry. The engineering aspect applies fluid dynamics and materials [...]

By | 2018-03-05T05:11:45+00:00 March 5th, 2018|Fermentation|0 Comments

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