Molecular Biology

/Molecular Biology

Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometry is a molecular technique that is used to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of particles in a fluid as it passes through  laser. It is laser-based technology used to count, sort, and profile cells in a heterogeneous fluid mixture. In this technique the cell components are fluorescently labeled and then excited by [...]

By | 2018-04-20T12:02:46+00:00 April 20th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Flow Cytometry

Active transport

Active transport uses specific transport proteins, called pumps, which use metabolic energy (ATP) to move ions or molecules against their concentration gradient. For example, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, the concentration of sodium ion is about 10 to 20 times higher in the blood than within the cell. The concentration of the potassium ion is [...]

By | 2018-04-20T11:49:53+00:00 April 20th, 2018|Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Active transport

Plasma membrane: Bulk transport

Cells can import and export large molecules across the plasma membrane. Macromolecules are secreted out from the cell by exocytosis and are ingested into the cell from outside through phagocytosis and endocytosis. Exocytosis It is also called emeiocytosis and cell vomiting. In all eukaryotic cells, secretary vesicles are continually carrying new plasma membrane and cellular [...]

By | 2018-04-20T11:26:22+00:00 April 20th, 2018|Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Plasma membrane: Bulk transport

RNA Splicing

The coding sequence of a gene is a series of three nucleotide codons that specify a sequence of amino acids in its polypeptide product. The codon for each amino acid is immediate adjacent of the codon of the next amino acid in a polypeptide chain in case of prokaryotic genome. Eukaryotic genome is composed [...]

By | 2018-04-19T11:10:23+00:00 April 19th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on RNA Splicing


Transformation is the process of transfer of exogenous genetic material into the cell through the cell membranes resulting in alteration of genetic material of host cell. The transformation process required the recipient bacteria must be in a state of competence i.e. state of being able to take up exogenous material from the environment, which [...]

By | 2018-04-19T09:13:10+00:00 April 19th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Transformation

Methods of analysis of gene expression

RFLP Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique in which organisms can be differentiated on the basis of analysis of patterns derived from processing of their DNA. Polymorphisms are inherited differences found among the individuals in more than 1% of normal population. If two organisms differ in the distance between sites of cleavage [...]

By | 2018-04-18T11:55:46+00:00 April 18th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Methods of analysis of gene expression

AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)

AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) Also known as Selective Restriction Fragment Amplification (SRFA)  is a PCR-based technique developed in the early 1990’s by Keygene. AFLP is used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering to detect polymorphisms in DNA when no information about the genome is known. A DNA [...]

By | 2018-04-18T11:49:53+00:00 April 18th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)

Gene cloning

Gene cloning is molecular technique in which gene of interest is copied to produced many identical copies of it. In this technique gene of interest is fused into a self-replicating genetic material i.e. plasmid. The insertion of gene of interest is done using self enzymes known as restriction enzymes. The molecule formed after the [...]

By | 2018-04-18T09:59:18+00:00 April 18th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Gene cloning

Plasmid vectors

Vectors can be described as an autonomously replicating DNA sequence that can be used to carry foreign DNA fragments. Commonly used vectors are bacteriophages and plasmids. A vector that is used predominantly for reproducing DNA segment is referred to as cloning vectors and vectors used for expressing a gene contained within the cloned DNA is [...]

By | 2018-04-17T12:21:29+00:00 April 17th, 2018|Molecular Biology|Comments Off on Plasmid vectors

Laminar air flow

Laminar air flow is an enclosed bench designed to maintain a working area devoid of contaminants. Many medical, microbiological and research laboratories require aseptic working environments in order to carry out specialized work. Laminar air Flow can provide the best solution. Laminar Flow Cabinets or laminar air flow is normally made of stainless steel without [...]

By | 2018-04-17T10:00:22+00:00 April 17th, 2018|Fermentation, Food Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Plant Tissue Culture|Comments Off on Laminar air flow

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